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机械电子类部分翻译案例


3、热力系统

Thermodynamic System

主蒸汽系统采用母管制。给水泵进出口的高低压给水管均采用母管制。在给水泵出口处还设有给水再循环管和再循环母管两台垃圾焚烧余热锅炉产生的过热蒸汽汇集到主蒸汽母管,在主蒸汽母管上经汽机主汽门进入凝汽式汽轮机中作功驱动发电机发电后,排汽进入凝汽器冷凝为凝结水。由凝结水泵将凝结水加压后进入除氧器。除氧后的130给水由锅炉给水泵送至余热锅炉循环运行。

The main steam system applies the bus pipe system, so do the high and low pressure water supply pipes at the inlet and outlet of water supply pump. The outlet of water supply pump is also set with a recirculating pipe and a recirculating bus pipe. The superheated steam generated by two garbage incineration exhaust-heat boilers will converge in the main steam bus pipe and then enter the condensing steam turbine via the main throttle valve to work, thus driving the generator to generate. After that, the steam will be discharged into the condenser to become condensate, which will then enter the deaerator after being pressurized by the condensate pump. After deoxygenization, water 130 of will be sent to the exhaust-heat boiler for circular flow.

为满足汽轮发电机组本体的调节、保安和润滑等要求,汽机间还设有油系统,它包括油箱、油泵、油冷却器等。

To meet the requirements of turbo generator set on adjustment, security and lubrication, the turbine generator chamber is also set with a oil system, consisting of oil tank, oil pump, oil cooler, etc. 

4、化学补充水系统

Chemical Make-up Water System

来自化水车间的化学补充水一路经排污冷却器加热后进入除氧器,一路直接补入疏水箱,供系统补水和锅炉上充水用。

One line of chemical make-up water from the chemical workshop will flow into the deaerator via the blow down cooler and another will be directly supplemented into the drain tank for recharging the system and boiler.

5、排污系统

Blow-down System

两台余热锅炉的排污水汇集到母管上排放至一台连续排污扩容器,扩容后的蒸汽排放至除氧器,排污水经过定期排污扩容器后排至地沟。

The sewage from two exhaust-heat boilers will converge to the bus pipe and then flow into a continuous blow down flash tank. The flashed steam will be discharged into the deaerator. The sewage will be discharged into the trench after passing through the regular blow down flash tank.


6、疏放水系统

Drain and Blow-down System

设置疏水箱一台、疏水扩容器一台。低压设备和管道的凝结水或疏水、化学

补充水直接进入疏水箱。压力较高的设备和管道的疏水经疏水扩容器扩容后进入疏水箱。

It is set with a drain tank and a drain flash tank. The condensate or drain in devices and pipes of low pressure and chemical make-up water will directly flow into the drain tank. The drain in devices and pipes of higher pressure will flow into the drain tank after the drain flash tank.  

疏放水系统设置两台疏水泵,一台运行、一台备用。

The drain and blow-down system is set with two sets of drain pumps, one in operation and one in standby.

7、循环水系统

Circulating Water System

循环水系统设有2台循环水泵,循环水系统的主要设备为凝汽器和循环水泵。

The circulating water system is set with 2 circulating water pumps. The main devices of circulating water system are condenser and circulating water pumps.

8、工业水和冷却水系统

Industrial Water and Cooling Water System

工业水系统由工业水供水,设有2根工业水供水母管,在厂房内形成管网。

The industrial water system is supplied with industrial water and is set with 2 industrial water supply bus pipes forming a pipe network in the plant.

9、汽机间及给水除氧间布置

Layout of Turbine Generator Chamber and Water Supply and Deaerator Chamber

汽机间采用双层布置。汽轮机、主汽阀、发电机及励磁机等布置在运行平台上,冷凝器、空气冷却器、冷油器、油泵等油系统辅助设备布置在底层。热力除氧器布置在除氧层上。

The turbine generator chamber applies a double-layer layout. The steam turbine, main steam valve, generator and exciter are fixed on the operation platform. The auxiliary devices of oil system, e.g. condenser, air cooler, oil cooler, oil pump, etc., are laid at the bottom layer. The thermal deaerator is on the deoxygenization layer.

10、运行工况技术经济指标

Technological and Economic Indicators of Operation Conditions

垃圾焚烧发电厂处理规模:                  700t/d

Treatment capacity of the garbage incineration power plant: 700t/d 

垃圾焚烧炉数量:                          两台

Number of garbage incinerator: 2 sets

单台炉垃圾处理量:                        350 t/d

Treatment capacity of a single incinerator: 350 t/d

设计工况垃圾热值:                        6280kJ/kg

Calorific value of garbage under designed operation conditions: 6280kJ/kg

设计工况单台炉产汽量:                     26t/h

Steam volume generated by a single incinerator under designed operation conditions: 26t/h

总产汽量:                                 52t/h

Total steam volume: 52t/h

汽轮发电机组数量:                        2台(12MW)

Number of steam turbine generator unit: 2 sets (12MW)

设计工况下单台汽轮机进汽量:               38.4t/h

Steam inlet rate of a single steam turbine generator under designed operation conditions: 38.4t/h

正常生产时,实行两炉两机运行制。考虑到每年机炉运行8000小时,并均要有760小时的检修时间。

In normal production, two boilers and generators will be put into operation and it is considered that the generator and boiler annually operate for 8,000 hours and requires 760 hours of overhaul. 

11、电气系统

Electrical System

电气设计范围

Scope of Electrical Design

设计内容包括厂区红线内所有子项的电气设计,包括发电、接入系统、厂用电、室内外照明、防雷与接地、消防、电信等。

The design contents include the electrical designs under the sub-item within the red lines of the plant, including generation and connection system, power for plant, indoor and outdoor lighting, lightning protection and grounding, fire proof, telecommunication, etc. 

设计原则

Design Principle

设计原则是在电气主接线方面力求简单、可靠;电气设备布置以便于运行维护为原则,尽量紧凑集中,达到节约投资及运行费用,降低成本的目的;继电保护的配置采用微机保护,以便准确、迅速的切除故障并满足电厂自动化要求。

The design principle to be simple and reliable in respect of the main electrical connection; the layout of electrical devices shall facilitate the operation and maintenance and shall be close and concentrated as much as possible, thus to save investment and operating expenses and lower down cost; the relay protection uses microcomputer protection to correctly and quickly remove faults and comply with the automation requirements of the power plant.  

12、电气主接线

Main Electrical Connection

本初步方案设置2台处理能力均为350吨/日的焚烧炉,配2台额定功率均为6MW的发电机组。

The preliminary program sets 2 incinerators with the treatment capacity of 350t/d and 2 generator units with the rated power of 6MW.

上网电能通过架空线路送往所在城市的变电站。

The power is transmitted to the substations in cities via the overhead lines.

13、继电保护和自动装置

Relay Protection and Automatic Device

焚烧垃圾发电厂主要配备下述继电保护和安全自动装置实现各项保护:

The garbage incineration power plant is mainly equipped with the following relay protection and safe automatic device to achieve various protections:

1)发电机保护:纵联差动保护、复合电压启动的过电流保护、过负荷保护、发电机单相接地过电流保护、发电机励磁一点接地和两点接地保护。

Protection of generator: longitudinal differential protection, over-current protection started by composite voltage, overload protection, over-current protection for single phase grounding of generator, one-point grounding and two-point grounding protection of generator excitation.

2)工作、应急厂用降压变压器保护:电流速断保护、过电流保护、零序电流保护、温度信号、应急电源自动投入装置。

Step down transformer protection for operating and emergent purpose: quick-break protection of current, over-current protection, zero sequence current protection, temperature signal, automatic charging equipment of emergency power supply.  

3)母线分段保护:过电流保护。

Bus protection in segments: over-current protection. 

14、照明和检修回路

Lighting and Circuit Overhaul

1)  照明

Lighting

本初步方案设有正常照明、事故照明、检修照明和局部照明。

The preliminary program is set with normal lighting, accidental lighting, overhaul lighting and local lighting. 

2)  检修回路

Overhaul Circuit

检修及特殊场所的照明网络电压可为12V或36V。

The voltage of lighting network for overhaul and special places can be 12V or 36V.

焚烧工房检修箱按规程规定地点设置,由中央配电屏供电;辅助工房检修电源箱,由工房各自的动力箱供电。

The overhaul box in the incineration workshop is set at the location specified in regulations and is supplied by the central distribution panel; the auxiliary overhaul box in the incineration is supplied by the power box in each workshop.  


15、电缆敷设

Cable Laying

本方案电缆构筑物主要有:电缆沟、电缆竖井等。电缆敷设方式主要采用沿桥架、沿电缆沟敷设,穿管敷设和直埋敷设。

The main cable structures in the program are: cable trench, cable shaft, etc. The laying method of cable mainly applies laying along the cable bridge and cable trench, pipe inserting laying and direct burying laying.

电缆构筑物应采取防火设施,如阻火隔墙、阻火段、阻火夹层等,采用涂料、槽盒、堵料等防火材料,对电缆进行防火阻燃设计并满足相应的规程规定。

The cable structures shall apply fire proof facilities, e.g. fire proof partition, fire proof section, fire proof interlayer, etc., and use such fireproofing materials as coating, trench box, putty, etc., to conduct fire retardant design for cable and meet corresponding regulations.   

16、消防系统

Fire Fighting System

1)  消防系统

Fire Fighting System

易燃场所及电气设备做可靠的防火防爆处理。在配电室、控制室等电气设备较集中的地方,加装烟感、温感探测器,并设消防专用报警器。

Reliable fire and explosion proof treatment shall be conducted for inflammable places and electrical devices. Flue gas detectors, temperature detectors and dedicated fire proof alarms shall be installed in places that electrical devices concentrate, e.g. distribution room, control room, etc. 

17、广播系统

Broadcasting System

为保证发布火灾报警、寻人广播和发布各类通知,综合主厂房内设置广播系统一套。

The main comprehensive plant shall be set with a broadcasting system to ensure the issurance of fire alarms, people search broadcasting and various notices.

18、电信系统

Telecommunication System

本垃圾焚烧发电厂的调度与通信方式待与当地相关主管部门协商后确定。

The scheduling and communication methods for the waste incineration power plant shall be determined through negotiation with local competent departments.

 

控制系统Control System

1、 主要控制系统组成

Compositions of Main Control System

垃圾焚烧发电厂采用由离散控制系统(DCS)、就地控制盘、就地仪表、控

制阀等构成的自动控制仪表设备进行控制、运行和监视。

The waste incineration power plant applies the automatic control instrument device composed of discrete control system (DCS), local control panel, local instrument, control valve, etc., to control, operate and monitor.    

2、 控制系统名称及方式

Name and Method of Control System

系统名称

System Name

控制方式

Control Method

地磅房

Wagon balance house

独立的计算机控制

Controlled by independent computer

垃圾卸料门

Garbage unloading gate

PLC

垃圾吊控制

Garbage lifting control

PLC

炉排液压系统

Hydraulic discharge system of incinerator

PLC

焚烧炉系统

Incinerator system

DCS

余热锅炉系统

Exhaust-heat boiler system

DCS

烟气处理系统

Flue gas treatment system

DCS

汽机及除氧给水系统

Water supply system for steam turbine and deoxygenization

DCS

化学水处理系统

Chemical water treatment system

PLC

综合水系统

Comprehensive water system

DCS

飞灰固化没系统

Fly ash solidification system

PLC

空压机系统

Air compressor system

PLC

渗沥液处理系统

Leachate treatment system

PLC

炉水加药、分析系统

Chemicals feeding, analysis system for boiler water

PLC

其他公用系统

Other public systems

DCS

 

给排水系统Water Supply and Drainage System

范围

Scope

本初步方案包括全厂的供水和排水,其中包括给水处理、污水处理和给排水管网。

The preliminary program includes the water supply and drainage for the entire plant, including water supply treatment, sewage treatment and water supply and drainage pipe network.

1、           水源

Water Source

水源分为地表水水源、自来水水源,垃圾焚烧发电厂用水采用地表水和自来水相结合的方式供给。

Water source is divided into surface water and running water. The water for waste incineration power plant applies the combination of surface water and running water.

城市自来水作为厂内生活用水,也可作为化学除盐水的备用水源。

The urban running water can be used as domestic water for the plant and standby water source for chemical desalted water.

2、           化学水系统

Chemical Water System

考虑垃圾焚烧发电的安全、可靠性要求,锅炉供水按工艺要求采用除盐水。

In view of the security and reliability requirements of the waste incineration power plant, the water supply for boiler shall apply desalted water according to technological requirements.

化学水处理工艺流程示意图

Schematic Diagram of Chemical Water Treatment Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

3、           消防给水系统

Fire Fighting Water Supply System

整个厂区消防系统为室内消火栓给水系统,室外消火栓给水系统。

The fire fighting system for the entire plant is indoor fire hydrant water supply system and outdoor fire hydrant water supply system.

4、排水

Drainage

1)排水包括生活污水的收集、处理,生产废水和污水的收集、处理,雨水的收集和处理。

Drainage includes the collection and treatment of domestic sewage, industrial waste water and rainwater.

2)排水采用清污分流,雨污分流体制。

Drainage applies the system of

3)捞渣机用水、干灰搅拌机用水、螺旋出灰机用水、厂房和卸料平台冲洗用水、渗滤液冲洗用水、车辆冲洗用水等经收集处理后排入排水管网。

The water for submerged chain conveyor, dry ash blender, spiral ash extractor, plant and unloading platform flushing, percolate flushing, vehicle flushing, etc., will be discharged into the drainage pipe network after collection and treatment. 

4)生活污水和生产废水经处理达标后排放。

The domestic sewage and industrial waste water will be discharged after meeting the treatment standards.

5)雨水通过厂区雨水管道排放。

The rain water will be discharged through the rain water pipeline in the plant.

5、废水处理工艺

Waste Water Treatment Process

本工程生活污水和地面冲洗废水通过处理达标后直接排放。处理水质为经化粪池一级处理后的生活污水。采用生物处理工艺,处理后的达标水可直接排放。

The domestic sewage and ground washing waste water will be discharged after meeting the treatment standards. The quality of treated water is domestic sewage after class I treatment by the septic tank. Biological treatment technology is applied. The water reaching standards after treatment can be directed discharged.

1)  调节曝气池

Aeration adjustment tank

预曝气调节池采用钢筋混凝土结构,设不锈钢机械格栅一台,设置污水提升泵二台(一用一备),设全自动液位控制器一套,超水位溢流口一只。池内设置预曝气管一套,既起预曝气作用,又可防止调节池积泥并防止调节池污水缺氧发臭。

Preaeration adjustment tank applies reinforced concrete structure. It is set with a set of stainless steel mechanical bar screen, two sewage lifting pumps (one in operation and one in standby), one set of full-automatic level controller and one overflow gate. The inside of tank is set with a set of preaeration pipelines, which not only have the effects of preaeration, but also prevent mud deposit in the adjustment tank and smelliness due to the lack of oxygen. 

2)  缺氧消化池

Anaerobic digestion tank

缺氧消化池采用防腐结构,池内设置立体弹性填料及曝气器,以防水流产生死角、短路。缺氧消化池平均设计气水比3:1,曝气头为陶瓷烧结微孔曝气器。

Anaerobic digestion tank applies anti-corrosion structure. The insider of the tank is set with a kind of three-dimensional flexible padding and an air sparger to prevent dead corners and short circuit of water flow. The average designed gas and water ratio of the anaerobic digestion tank is 3:1. The aerator is ceramic post sintering fine bubble aerator.     

3)  接触氧化池

Contact oxidation tank

接触氧化池采用防腐结构,池内设置新型立体弹性填料及曝气器,同时池内按实际情况设置多级隔板,以防水流产生死角、短路。接触氧化池采用推流式均匀曝气,污水在生化池内不断的推进,以充分使填料上生物膜与污水中的有机物相接触,使得污水中的有机物得到充分降解;生化池平均设计气水比12:1,曝气头为陶瓷微孔曝气器,氧的利用率比一般穿孔曝气提高5倍以上。为保证氨氮的去除率,池内设置回流水泵1台。

Contact oxidation tank applies anti-corrosion structure. The insider of the tank is set with a kind of three-dimensional flexible padding and an air sparger. Meanwhile, multistage partition plates are set in the tank according to actual conditions to prevent dead corners and short circuit of water flow. The contact oxidation tank applies pushing flow uniform aeration and the sewage continues to advance in the biochemical tank, so as to make the biological film on padding completely contact with the organics in sewage and let the organics in sewage to be fully degraded; the designed average gas-water ratio in the biochemical is 12:1. The aerator is ceramic post sintering fine bubble aerator and the use ratio of oxygen is generally five times of that of general perforating aeration. To ensure the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, the tank is set with 1 backflow water pump.

4)  二沉池

Secondary sedimentation tank

二沉池采用防腐结构,竖流式设置,池内设置导流筒1只,排泥装置一套。

Secondary sedimentation tank applies anti-corrosion structure and vertical flowing setting. The tank is set with 1 guide cylinder and 1 mud discharge device.

5)  消毒池

Disinfection tank

消毒池采用钢结构,消毒剂采用固体氯片消毒。

Disinfection tank applies steel structure and disinfectant is solid chlorine tablets.

6)  污泥池

Sludge tank

污泥池采用防腐结构,初沉池、二沉池内沉降的污泥用气提升送入污泥池,池内设置曝气管一套,加速污泥消化。污泥池内沉降的污泥由环卫所的粪车抽吸外运。

Sludge tank applies anti-corrosion structure. The sludge in the primary sedimentation tank and secondary sedimentation tank is lifted with steam and sent into the sludge tank. The tank is set with 1 aerator pipe to accelerate the digestion of sludge. The sludge settled in the tank will be transported to the outside by the dung-cart of the Institute of Environmental Health.

烟气净化系统Flue gas Purification System

在通常情况下,烟气净化技术主要针对酸性气体(HCl,HF,SOx)、NOx、颗粒物、有机物及重金属等进行控制,其工艺设备主要由几部分组成:即酸性气体脱除、颗粒物捕集、NOx的去除和有机物及重金属的去除工艺设备。

In normal conditions, the flue gas purification technology is mainly for controlling acid gases (HCl, HF, SOx), NOx, particles, organics, heavy metals, etc. The processing equipment is mainly composed of the following parts: i.e. equipment for removing acid gas removal, capture of particles, removal of NOx and organics and heavy metals.

1、酸性气体脱除工艺

Acid Gas Removal Technology

半干法除酸:

Semidry De-acidification

半干法除酸一般采用氧化钙(CaO)或氢氧化钙(Ca(OH)2)为原料,制备成氢氧化钙(Ca(OH)2)溶液作为吸收剂,在烟气净化工艺流程中通常置于除尘设备之前,因为注入石灰浆后在反应塔中形成大量的颗粒物,必须由除尘器收集去除。由喷嘴或旋转喷雾器将Ca(OH)2溶液喷入反应塔中,形成粒径极小的液滴。由于水分的挥发从而降低废气的温度并提高其湿度,使酸气与石灰浆反应成为盐类,掉落至底部。烟气和石灰浆采用顺流或逆流设计,维持烟气与石灰浆微粒充分反应的接触时间,以获得高的除酸效率。

Semidry de-acidification generally applies calcium oxide (CaO) or calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) as raw materials for preparing calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) solution as absorbent, which is often placed before the dust removal device, because abundant particles will form in the reaction tower after injecting lime slurry and must be removed by the dust removal device. The volatilization of moisture will reduce the temperature of waste gas and enhance the humidity to let the acid gas react with lime slurry to generate salt, which will fall to the bottom. Direct flow or reverse flow design is applied for flue gas and lime slurry to maintain the contract time for full reaction between the flue gas and lime slurry, so as to obtain high deacidification efficiency.

半干法反应塔内未反应完全的石灰,可随烟气进入除尘器,若除尘设备采用袋式除尘器,部分未反应物将附着于滤袋上与通过滤袋的酸气再次反应,使脱酸效率进一步提高,相应提高了石灰浆的利用率。

The lime that does not fully react in the semidry reaction tower will enter the dust removal device with the flue gas. If the dust removal device applies bag type dust removal device, the lime that does not fully react will attach to the filter bag and react with the acid gas passing the filter bag, further enhancing the deacidification efficiency and corresponding enhancing the use ratio of lime slurry.

此种方式的特点是:

Characteristics of this method are as follows:

l      半干式反应塔脱酸效率较高,对HCl的去除率达到标准(90%),此外对一般有机污染物及重金属也具有良好的去除效率,若搭配袋式除尘器,则重金属去除效率完全达标(99%)。

l      The deacidification efficiency of semidry reaction tower is higher and its removal rate of HCI can reach the standard (90%). In addition, its removal rate of common organic pollutants and heavy metals is good. If the bag type dust removal device is equipped, the removal rate of heavy metals can completely reach the standards (99%).

l      不产生废水排放,耗水量较湿式洗涤塔少。

l      No waste water will be generated. The water consumption is relatively less than that of wet washing tower.

l      流程简单,投资和运行费用相对较低。

l      The process is simple and investment and operating expenses are relatively low.

l      石灰浆制备系统较复杂。

l      The lime slurry preparation system is relatively complicated.


2、除尘Dust Removal

袋式除尘器

Bag Type Dust Removal Device

袋式除尘器可除去粒状污染物及重金属。袋式除尘器通常包含多组密闭集尘单元,其中包含多个由笼骨支撑的滤袋。烟气由袋式除尘器下半部进入,然后由下向上流动,当含尘烟气流经滤袋时,粒状污染物被滤布过滤,并附着在滤布上。

The bag type dust removal device can remove particulate pollutants and heavy metals. The bag type dust removal device usually contains multi groups of closed dust collection units, including a number of filter bags supported by cage frame. The flue gas enters the bag type dust removal device from the bottom and flows from down to up. When the flue gas containing dust passes the filter bag, the particulate pollutants will be filtered by the filter cloth and attach to the filter cloth.

袋式除尘器能满足脱除有机物(二恶英等)、重金属的需要。

Bag type dust removal device can meet the need of removing organics (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, etc.) and heavy metals.

3、重金属及二恶英去除

Removing Heavy Metals and Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

重金属以固态、液态和气态的形式进入除尘器,当烟气冷却时,气态部分转化为可捕集的固态或液态微粒。所以,垃圾焚烧烟气净化系统的温度越低,则重金属的净化效果越好。

Heavy metals will enter the dust removal device in the solid, liquid and gas state. When the flue gas cools, the part in gas state will transfer into the solid or liquid particles that can be collected. Therefore, the lower the temperature of the flue gas purification system for garbage incineration, the better the purification effects of heavy metals.

城市生活垃圾中含有的氯元素、有机质很多,因此锅炉出口的烟气中常含有二恶英类物质(PCDD、PCDF)。

The municipal domestic garbage contains a lot of chlorine and organic matters; therefore the flue gas at the outlet of boiler often contains tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD, PCDF).

重金属及二恶英去除工艺是采用活性炭吸附加袋式除尘器。袋式除尘器也对二恶英类和重金属有较好的去除效果。采用半干法净化工艺,活性炭喷入装置设置在除尘器前的管道上,干态活性炭以气动形式通过喷射风机喷射入除尘器前的管道中,通过在滤袋上和烟气的接触进行吸附去除重金属和二恶英类物质。

The heavy metals and TCDD removal technology applies active carbon adsorption and bag type dust removal device, which has good removal effects for TCDD and heavy metals. If semi dry purification technology is applies, active carbon will be injected into the pipeline set in front of the dust removal device and dry active carbon will be injected into the pipeline set in front of the dust removal device via the injection fan in a pneumatic form. Heavy metals and TCDD will be absorbed through contracting with the flue gas on the filter bag.

另外二恶英类物质(PCDD、PCDF)的控制措施还包括以下几个方面:

In addition, the control measures for TCDD (PCDD, PCDF) also include the following aspects:

1)使垃圾充分燃烧

To let garbage fully burn;

2)控制烟气在炉膛内的停留时间和温度

To control the stay time and temperature of flue gas in the hearth;

2)  控制进入除尘器入口的温度低于200

To control the temperature at the entrance to the dust removal device to be below 200

当进入除尘器的烟气温度为140-160时,对二恶英类的去除率达到99%以上,汞的排放检测不出。

When the temperature of the flue gas to enter the dust removal device is 140-160, the removal rate of TCDD can be above 99%. The mercury discharge can not be detected.


4NOx去除 Removing NOx

NOx的去除工艺有选择性非催化还原法(SNCR)、选择性催化还原法(SCR)等。

The NOx removal technologies are selective non-catalytic reduction method (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction method (SCR).

1)  选择性催化还原法(SCR)

Selective Catalytic Reduction Method (SCR)

SCR法是在催化剂的存在的条件下,NOx被还原成N2,为了达到SCR法还原反应所需的400℃的温度,烟气在进入催化脱氮器之前需要加热,试验证明SCR法可以将NOx排放浓度控制在50mg/Nm3以下。

SCR is to restore NOx into N2 with the existence of catalyst. In order to reach the temperature of 400℃ required for the SCR method, the flue gas should be heated before entering the catalytic denitrification device. It is certified through tests that SCR method can control the discharge concentration of NOx below 50mg/Nm3.

2)  选择性非催化还原法(SNCR)

Selective Non-catalytic Reduction Method (SNCR)

SNCR是在高温(800-1000℃)条件下,利用还原剂将NOx还原成N2,SNCR不需要催化剂,但其还原反应所需的温度比SCR法高得多,因此SNCR需设置在焚烧炉膛内完成。

SNCR is to restore NOx into N2 with reducing agent under high temperature (800-1000℃). SNCR requires no catalyst, but the temperature required for the reduction reaction is higher than that of SCR method, therefore SNCR shall be set to complete in the hearth.

两种方法相比较,SCR法不仅需要催化剂,同时还要在除尘器后进行重新加热,需要耗用大量热能,因此,工程上SNCR比SCR法应用得更多一些。

Comparing two methods, SCR method not only requires catalyst, but also requires re-heating after the dust removal device and requires abundant heat, therefore SNCR is more frequently used in project than SCR method.

目前暂不建议设专门的NOx去除设施,具体有以下原因:

Currently, it is not suggested set special NOx removal facilities, the specific reasons are as follows:

1)SNCR进口投资较高,同时后期的使用、维护费用也很高。

The investment in SNCR import is higher, so is the use and maintenance fee in later stage.

2)结合炉内燃烧技术,包括O2的控制,炉内温度的控制等,能够减少NOx在锅炉出口的原生浓度。

When used with the burning technology within the boiler, including control O2 and temperature in the boiler etc., the primary concentration of NOx at the exit to boiler will be reduced.

3)NOx在锅炉出口的原生浓度在200-600mg/Nm3左右,一般在300 mg/Nm3以下,已经基本接近烟气排放指标,同时通过活性炭吸附、石灰中和反应等能去除一部分NOx。

The primary concentration of NOx at the exit to boiler is about 200-600mg/Nm3 and is generally below 300 mg/Nm3, which is approximately close to the discharge index of flue gas. Meanwhile, partial NOx can be removed through active carbon adsorption, lime neutralization reaction and so on.

目前的焚烧技术在不使用NOx去除设施的情况下,同样可以达到排放浓度在150-400mg/Nm3,所以为了节省投资并节省运行维护费用,本方案建议不设NOx去除设施,但预留SNCR脱氮系统接口。

Currently, the incineration technology can also reach the discharge concentration of 150-400mg/Nm3 without using NOx removal facilities, therefore the program suggests not setting NOx removal facilities, but reserving the interface for SNCR denitrification system in order to save investment and operating and maintenance expenses.

5、烟气净化处理Flue gas Purification Treatment

垃圾焚烧烟气中的污染物可分为

The pollutants in the flue gas of garbage incineration may be divided into the following four categories:

1)      颗粒物(粉尘)。

Particles (dust).

2)      酸性气体(HCl、HF、SOx、NOx等)。

Acid gas (HCl, HF, Sox, NOx, etc.)

3)      重金属(Hg、Pb、Cr等)。

Heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cr, etc.)

4)      有机剧毒性污染物(二恶英、呋喃等)四大类。

Organic pollutants with hypertoxicity (TCDD, furan, etc.)

为了防止垃圾焚烧处理过程中对环境产生二次污染,必须采取严格的措施,利用烟气净化系统控制垃圾焚烧烟气的排放。本套工艺主要包括以下几个部分:石灰浆制备系统、喷雾干燥反应塔系统、袋式除尘器系统、活性炭系统及灰渣输送系统。

To prevent secondary environmental pollution in the garbage incineration process, strict measures must be taken to utilize the flue gas purification system to control the discharge of garbage incineration flue gas. This technology mainly includes the following parts: lime slurry preparation system, spray drying reaction tower system, bag type dust removal system, active carbon system and ash transporting system.

6、工艺流程Process Flow

半干法净化工艺选用“喷雾干燥反应塔+活性炭吸附+布袋除尘器”的工艺流程。

Semidry purification technology selects the process flow of “spray drying reaction tower+active carbon absorption+bag type dust removal device”.

 

 
 
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