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公路桥梁工程部分翻译案例


5.1.5.1主要桥梁工程地质评价

Engineering Geological Evaluation of Major Bridge Projects

1A线渠江特大桥

A-line Qujiang extremely large bridge

位于渠县北部渠北区孝石溪,横跨渠江,桩号为AK98+284.184AK98+655.184,桥梁全长371m,桥面净宽24.5m,结构类型为80+140+80的特大桥。

It is located at Xiaoshixi of Qubei District of northern Quxian County, spanning Qujiang River. The pile No. is AK98+284.184-AK98+655.184. The bridge is 371 long, with the clear width of the bridge surface at 24.5m. Its structure type is an extremely large bridge of 80+140+80.

桥址区属四川盆地中东部丘陵区,两岸为台地,高出现河水面约25左右,地形开阔平坦。根据现场调查和钻孔揭露,出露地层主要为侏罗系中统上沙溪庙组(J2s)砂泥岩不等厚互层及第四系全新统冲积层(Q4al)漂卵石土。构造上处于新华系四川沉降带内,川东弧形构造带与川中褶皱带交汇部位,地层产状为:311°∠20°,未发现断裂构造,挽近期地壳运动以缓慢间隙性整体抬升为主,地震少而弱,地震基本烈度为度。

The bridge site area is in the hilly region in the central and eastern Sichuan Basin. On both banks are terraces, about 25m higher than the water surface. The landform is wide and flat. According to the field survey and drilling disclosure, the outcropping stratum is Jurassic middle and upper Shaximiao Stratum (J2s) sandy mudstone unequal interlayer and Quaternary Holocene fluviatile alluvium (Q4al) float cobble and soil. Tectonically, it is located in the Xinhua System Sichuan sedimentation zone. Eastern Sichuan arc tectonic zone and central Sichuan fold zone convergence. The occurrence of landform is 311°20°. No fracture tectonics is found. The crust movement of the late Cenozoic is dominated by slow intermittent overall rising. The earthquakes are fewer and weak. Basic earthquake intensity is VI.

桥址区基岩产状平缓,完整性较好,无滑坡、崩塌等不良地质现象,区域构造稳定性属稳定区,工程地质条件较好,适宜建桥。桥台可采用重力式扩大基础,桥墩可采用桩基础,基础置于中风化基岩内一定深度。

The occurrence of bedrock in the bridge site is gentle and well kept. There is no adverse geology such as landslide or collapse. The stability of regional structure is a stable area. The engineering geological conditions are fine, which are suitable for bridge building. Gravity expansion foundation can be adopted for the bridge abutment. Pile foundation can be used for the bridge abutment. The foundation shall be put into the weathering bedrock for a certain depth.

2F线渠江特大桥

F-line Qujiang extremely large bridge

位于渠县临巴镇上游约3Km,横跨渠江,桩号为FK98+052.36FK98+783.36,桥梁全长731m,桥面净宽24.5m,主桥采用80+140+80连续刚构。

It is about 3km from the upstream of Linba Town of Quxian County, spanning Qujiang River. The pile No. is FK98+052.36-FK98+783.36. The bridge is 731m long, with clear width of bridge surface of 24.5m. The major bridge adopts continuous rigid frame of 80+140+80m.

桥址区属四川盆地中东部丘陵区,右岸呈陡缓交替之势,为基岩台地,台地面地形开阔,高出现河水面约21左右,左岸桥台位于渠江一级基座阶地,其阶面较平坦开阔,多开垦为农田,有居民点。出露地层主要为侏罗系中统上沙溪庙组(J2s)砂泥岩不等厚互层及第四系全新统冲积层(Q4al)漂卵石土。构造上处于新华系四川沉降带内,川东弧形构造带与川中褶皱带交汇部位,地层产状为:311°∠20°,未发现断裂构造,挽近期地壳运动以缓慢间隙性整体抬升为主,地震少而弱,地震基本烈度为度。

The bridge site area is in the hilly region in the central and eastern Sichuan Basin. Steep and gentle slopes alternate on the right bank. The landform of terraces is wide, about 21m higher than the water surface. The landform is wide and flat. The bridge abutment on the left bank is located on the Class-I base terrace, whose surface is wide and flat. There are many farmlands and residential settlement. The outcropping stratum is mainly Jurassic middle and upper Shaximiao Stratum (J2s) sandy mudstone unequal interlayer and Quaternary Holocene fluviatile alluvium (Q4al) float cobble and soil. Tectonically, it is located in the Xinhua System Sichuan sedimentation zone. Eastern Sichuan arc tectonic zone and central Sichuan fold zone convergence. The occurrence of landform is 311°?20°. No fracture tectonics is found. The crust movement of the late Cenozoic is dominated by slow intermittent overall rising. The earthquakes are fewer and weak. Basic earthquake intensity is VI.

桥址区基岩产状平缓,完整性较好,无滑坡、崩塌等不良地质现象,区域构造稳定性属稳定区,工程地质条件较好,适宜建桥。桥台可采用重力式扩大基础,桥墩可采用桩基础,基础置于中风化基岩内一定深度。

The occurrence of bedrock in the bridge site is gentle and well kept. There is no adverse geology such as landslide or collapse. The stability of regional structure is a stable area. The engineering geological conditions are fine, which are suitable for bridge building. Gravity expansion foundation can be adopted for the bridge abutment. Pile foundation can be used for the bridge abutment. The foundation shall be put into the weathering bedrock for a certain depth.

5.1.5.2主要隧道工程地质评价

Engineering geological evaluation of major tunnel projects

1A线华莹山隧道

A-line Huayingshan Tunnel

A线华蓥山隧道桩号AK105+265AK115+140,全长9875m,隧道进口位于一倾向北西的顺向斜坡中部,斜坡坡度1015°,坡面多被第四系残坡积、崩坡积层覆盖,厚度35m,穿越岩层主要为侏罗系中下统自流井组灰岩夹泥岩、钙质泥岩、泥岩等。岩层产状287298°∠71°。进口段斜坡无滑坡、泥石流、崩塌等不良地质现象,现状稳定。

The tunnel pile No. of A-line Huayingshan Tunnel is AK105+265-AK115+140 with a total length of 9875m. The entrance of the tunnel is situated in the central part of a forward ramp leaning toward NW, and the gradient of the ramp is 10-15°. There are many overburdens of Quaternary eluvium and colluvial deposits. The thickness is 3-5m. The major rock strata through which the tunnel passes include Jurassic middle and lower Ziliujing Stratum limestone with mudstone, calcareous mudstone, mudstone, etc. The occurrence of the rock stratum is 287-298°∠71°. The ramp of entry section has no adverse geologic phenomenon such as landslide, mudflow, collapse, etc. The situation is stable.

隧道洞身段在AK105+746AK106+433段、AK112+122AK113+121穿越三叠系上统须家河组含煤地层,该套地层含煤数层,可采煤层达35层,该段现状未设置任何采矿企业,但不排除有采空的民间私人作坊式小煤窑(即采空区)的存在,隧道开挖可能会遭遇小范围的采空区。隧道穿越该层位,采空区及瓦斯为此段主要不良地质现象。另拟建隧道穿越华蓥山背斜核部,该段背斜核部由三叠系中统雷口坡组及下统嘉陵江组地层组成。雷口坡组地层主要由钙质泥岩、泥灰岩、灰岩等一系列岩石组成,其特点是以泥质岩为主,岩溶发育程度相对较弱;嘉陵江组地层由灰岩、白云质灰岩及盐溶角砾岩为主,且含石膏,岩溶强烈发育,隧道通过不排除遭遇较大规模的溶洞、暗河的可能,为十分突出的不良地质现象。洞身段多为级围岩,围岩的自稳能力一般~较差。

The tunnel body section passes through Triassic upper Xujiahe Stratum with coal-bearing stratum at Sections K105+746-AK106+433 and AK112+122-AK113+121. This stratum has a lot of coal-bearing layers, and the number of minable coal beds can be reach three or five. Currently, there is no mining enterprise in this section, but possibly there are private small coal pits (or goaf). Thus, the tunneling may encounter goafs in a small area. The tunnel passes through this stratum, and the major adverse geologic phenomenon is goaf and gas. Additionally, the tunnel is proposed to pass through the core of Huayingshan Anticline, and the core is composed of Triassic middle Leikoupo Stratum and lower Jialingjiang Stratum. Leikoupo Stratum mainly consists of calcareous mudstone, marlite, limestone, etc., featured with the domination of argillaceous rocks and weak development of karst. Jialingjiang Stratum is composed of limestone, dolomitic limestone and saline breccia with gypsum. Karst is considerably developed, and the tunnel may passes through large solution cavity and underground river, which are the prominent adverse geologic phenomenon. The tunnel body is mainly of Class III and Class IV wall rocks. The self-stabilization capability of wall rocks is average to poor.

隧道出口段(AK114+920AK115+140段)位于一南东向顺向斜坡上,斜坡坡度约2536°,坡面多被第四系残坡积层覆盖,穿越地层主要为侏罗系中下统自流井组泥岩、砂岩及生物碎屑灰岩等,产状约113°∠32°。洞口浅埋段强风化厚度较大,洞口仰、堑坡稳定性较差,洞口围岩为级围岩,拱顶不及时支护可能出现掉块、坍塌等现象,稳定性较差。且该段须穿大竹县中华乡黑滩煤矿采空区,该矿开采标高+200+489m,从访矿开采标高结合线路设计标高来看,该方案隧道穿越该矿采空区可能性很大,煤层采空区及瓦斯对隧道的影响大。

The exit section of the tunnel (Section AK114+920-AK115+140) is located on a forward ramp in the SE direction, and the gradient of the ramp is 25-36°. The ramp surface is mainly covered with Quaternary system eluvium layer. The major strata through which the tunnel passes include Jurassic middle and lower Ziliujing Stratum mudstone, sandstone, bioclast limestone, etc. The occurrence of the rock stratum is 113°∠32°. The shallow burying section of the entrance has thick weathering layer, and the stability of the heading slope and cutting slope at the entrance is poor. The wall rocks at the entrance are Class V, and falling, collapse or other hazards many befall if the arch crown is not supported in time. Moreover, this section has to pass through Heitan coal mine goaf in Zhonghua Township of Dazhu County, the mining elevation of the mine is +200-+489m. Based on the design elevation and the mining elevation, the tunnel in this scheme will probably pass through this goaf, so the coalbed goaf and gas will have great impact on the tunnel.

2A线铜锣山隧道

A-line Tongluoshan Tunnel

A线铜锣山隧道桩号AK133+629AK138+591,全长4962m。进口位于铜锣山北西翼山体斜坡下部,坡度约18°,坡面基岩零星出露,局部被垦为旱地。进口地层为侏罗系下统珍珠冲组地层,岩性为砂岩夹泥岩,岩层产状291°∠61°。线路与斜坡近垂直相交,形成一顺向坡,斜坡坡面无大、中型滑坡、泥石流及崩塌现象,现状稳定。洞口围岩为级围岩,岩体风化节理发育,自稳能力较差,仰、堑坡稳定性差。

The pile No. of A-line Tongluoshan Tunnel is AK133+629-AK138+591 with a total length of 4962m. The entrance is located in the lower part of the northwestern mountain of Tongluo Mountain, and the gradient is about 18°. There are some sporadic bedrocks outcropping on the slope surface, and some places are cultivated to upland field. The entrance stratum is Jurassic lower Zhenzhuchong Stratum, the lithology is sandstone with mudstone, and the occurrence of the rock stratum is 291°61°. The line and the rap are nearly vertical and intercross with each other, so a bedding slope is created. There is no phenomenon of large or medium landslide, mudflow or collapse. The situation is stable. The wall rocks of the entrance are Class V, and the weathering joints of the rock mass is developed. The self-stability capacity is poor, and the stability of heading slope and cutting slope is poor.

隧道洞身段穿越铜锣峡背斜北西翼须家河组含煤地层、铜锣峡背斜核部、背斜南东翼须家河组地层,隧道围岩级别为级。隧道穿越背斜北西翼须家河组含煤段时遭遇大竹县麂子坝久通煤矿,煤矿设计开采标高±0+403m2007年),在AK134+112123m穿越K2煤层采空区。铜锣峡背斜核部受构造影响发育一条逆断层,断层产状291°∠61°,背斜核部及断层破碎带内岩体破碎,围岩为级,影响线路里程AK135+520893段,拱顶时易出现掉块、坍塌现象。其余段主要穿越的地层主要有三叠系雷口坡组、嘉陵江组、飞仙关组以及二叠系长兴组等,各组段岩性均为一套碳酸盐岩类岩石,多为灰岩、白云质灰岩及泥灰岩、岩溶角砾岩,且在嘉陵江组中含石膏矿,岩溶角砾岩岩溶发育极其强烈,隧道通过时遭遇大型溶洞、暗河的可能性较大。此外,背斜南东翼亦将穿越三叠系须家河组含煤地层,该段有废弃老窑-大竹石桥铺二煤厂,在AK138+285298m穿越煤层采空区。

The tunnel body passes through Xujiahe Stratum coal-bearing stratum in the northwest of Tongluoxia Anticline and Tongluoxia Anticline core part, Xujiahe Stratum stratum in the southeast of syncline. The grade of wall rocks of the tunnel is Class III and V. The tunnel will face Jiutong Coal Mine in Jiziba of Dazhu County when it passes through Xujiahe Stratum coal-bearing stratum in the northwest of Tongluoxia Anticline. The design elevation of the coal mine is 0-+403m (2007), and passes through K2 coalbed goaf of K2 coalbed at AK134+112-123m. The core part of Tongluoxia Anticline has one reverse fault developed as affected by the tectonics. The occurrence of the fault is 291°61°, the rock body at the anticline core and fault fracture zone is broken. The wall rocks are Class V, and the affected line mileage is AK135+520-893. Falling, collapse or other hazards many befall if the arch crown is not supported in time. The major strata that other sections pass through include Triassic Leikoupo Stratum, Jialingjiang Stratum, Feixianguan Stratum and Permian Changxing Stratum etc. The lithology of all stratums and sections is a set of carbonate rock, mostly limestone, dolomitic limestone, marlite, and karst breccia. The Jianglingjiang Stratum contains gypsum, and the karst breccia develops substantially. It is probably that the tunnel may encounter large solution cavity and underground river. Additionally, the eastern wing of the anticline will pass through Triassic Xujiahe Stratum coal-bearing stratum. There is a discarded old mine—Dazhu Shiqiaopu No. 2 Coal Factory, which passes through coalbed goaf at AK138+285-298m.

隧道出口段位于一总体倾向南东的多面斜坡上,斜坡一般坡度14°,坡面多被第四系覆盖。进口为侏罗系中下统自流井组地层,岩性为介壳灰岩、钙质泥岩、砂岩及泥岩,岩层产状129°∠71°,线路与斜坡大角度相交,坡面无大、中型滑坡、泥石流及崩塌现象,斜坡现状稳定。洞口浅埋段强风化厚度较大,由于斜坡为顺向坡,且岩层倾角较斜坡坡度略陡,洞口开挖仰、堑坡稳定性较差,洞口围岩为级围岩,拱顶不及时支护可能出现掉块、坍塌等现象。

The exit section of the tunnel is located on a polyhedral ramp tilting towards the southeast. Generally, the gradient of the ramp is 14°. The ramp surface is often covered by Quaternary overburden. The entrance is Jurassic middle and lower Ziliujing Stratum stratum, and the lithology is shell limestone, calcareous mudstone, sandstone and mudstone. The occurrence of the rock stratum is 129°71°. The line intercrosses with the large angle of the ramp. There is no large and medium landslide, mudflow or collapse on the ramp surface. The ramp is stable currently. The shallow burying section of the entrance has thick weathering layer. As the ramp is forward slope and the inclining angle of the rock stratum is steeper than the gradient of the ramp, and the stability of the heading slope and cutting slope at the entrance is poor. The wall rocks at the entrance are Class V, and falling, collapse or other hazards many befall if the arch crown is not supported in time. 

3F线华莹山隧道

F-line Huayingshan Tunnel

F线华蓥山隧道桩号FK104+760FK112+726,全长7966m,洞口位于一倾向南西的顺向斜坡中下部,坡度约23°,坡面基岩大面积出露,为侏罗系下统珍珠冲组地层,岩性为砂岩夹泥岩,岩层产状296°∠71°。线路与斜坡近垂直相交,形成一顺向坡,对斜坡稳定不利。进口段斜坡无滑坡、泥石流、崩塌等不良地质现象,现状稳定性好。洞口围岩为级围岩,岩体风化节理发育,自稳能力较差,仰、堑坡稳定性差。

The pile No. of F-line Tongluoshan Tunnel is FK104+760-FK112+726 with a total length of 7,966m. The entrance is located in the middle and lower part of forward ramp tilting toward southwest, and the gradient is about 23°. There are large bedrocks outcropping on the slope surface. The entrance stratum is Jurassic lower Zhenzhuchong Stratum, the lithology is sandstone with mudstone, and the occurrence of the rock stratum is 296°71°. The line and the rap are nearly vertical and intercross with each other, so a bedding slope is created favorable for the stability. There is no adverse geologic phenomenon of landslide, mudflow or collapse. The situation is stable. The wall rocks of the entrance are Class V, and the weathering joints of the rock mass is developed. The self-stability capacity is poor, and the stability of heading slope and cutting slope is poor.

隧道洞身段分别穿越华蓥山背斜北西翼的三叠系须家河组含煤地层、背斜核部、背斜南东翼须家河组含煤地层,围岩多为级。隧道所穿越的背斜北西翼有渠县水巴岩煤矿矿区范围及其采空区影响,渠县水巴岩煤矿其开采标高为±0+340m,隧道在线路里程FK105+199216m穿越煤层及煤层采空区,在FK105+270279m穿越煤层采空区、FK105+412422m穿越煤层采空区。此外,线路通过时还将穿越三层可采煤层,存在煤与瓦斯突出的可能。隧道穿越华蓥山背斜核部地层为三叠系中统雷口坡组及下统嘉陵江组地层组成。雷口坡组地层主要由钙质泥岩、泥灰岩、灰岩等一系列岩石组成,其特点是以泥质岩为主,岩溶发育程度相对较弱;嘉陵江组地层由灰岩、白云质灰岩及岩溶角砾岩、泥灰岩为主,且含石膏,岩溶发育,且岩溶角砾岩岩溶发育程度强烈,洞身段为级围岩,围岩的自稳能力一般~较好,拱顶不及时跟进支护时有小方量的掉块,侧壁基本稳定,隧道通过时遭遇较大规模的溶洞、暗河的可能性大,为该段线路通过十分突出的不良地质现象。隧道穿越背斜南东翼须家河组围岩多为级。且须穿越两个煤矿的采矿范围,即高口滩煤矿、田坝煤矿。隧道线路里程在FK112+381407m穿越煤层采空区,在FK112+471495m穿越煤层采空区。此外,线路还将穿越可采煤层,存在煤与瓦斯突出的可能。

The tunnel body passes through Xujiahe Stratum coal-bearing stratum in the northwest of Huayingshan Anticline, Anticline core part, Xujiahe Stratum stratum in the southeast of syncline. The wall rocks are most Class III and V. The northeastern wing of the anticline through which the tunnel passes will be subject to the impact of Shuibayan Coal Mine and its goaf. The design elevation of Shuibayan coal mine is 0-+340m. The tunnel passes through the coal bed and coalbed goaf at the line mileage FK105+199-216m, and passes the coalbed goaf at FK105+270-279m and FK105+412-422m. Moreover, the line will also pass through minable coalbed after penetrating three layers, and it is possible to have the outburst of coal and gas. The Huayingshan Anticline core stratum through which the tunnel passes is composed of Triassic middle Leikoupo Stratum and lower Jialingjiang Stratum. Leikoupo Stratum stratum mainly consists of calcareous mudstone, marlite, limestone, etc., featured with the domination of argillaceous rocks and weak development of karst. Jialingjiang Stratum is composed of limestone, dolomitic limestone and saline breccia with gypsum. Karst is considerably developed, and the tunnel may passes through large solution cavity and underground river, which are the prominent adverse geologic phenomenon. The tunnel body is mainly of Class III and Class IV wall rocks. The self-stabilization capability of wall rocks is average to fine. Small falling may happen if the arch crown is not supported in time. The side wall is basically stable. The tunnel will probably pass through large solution cavity and underground river, which are the prominent adverse geologic phenomenon. The wall rocks through which the tunnel passes in the Xujiahe Stratum in the southeastern wing of the anticline are mostly Class III and Class V. The tunnel has to pass through the mining scope of two coal mines, i.e. Gaokoutan Coal Mine and Tianba Coal Mine. The tunnel line mileage passes through the coalbed goaf at FK112+381-407m and FK112+471-495m. Moreover, the line will also pass through the minable coalbed, and may cause the outburst of coal and gas.

隧道出口段隧道出口段位于一南东向顺向斜坡上,坡度18°,坡面基岩大面积出露。为侏罗系下统珍珠冲组地层,岩性为砂岩夹泥岩,岩层产状141°∠35°,线路与斜坡大角度相交,坡面无大、中型滑坡、泥石流及崩塌现象,斜坡现状稳定。出口岩体强风化厚度较大,又为一顺向坡,洞口仰、堑坡稳定性较差,洞口围岩为级围岩,拱顶及侧壁不及时支护可能出现掉块、坍塌等现象,稳定性较差。

The exit section of the tunnel is located on a forward ramp in the SE direction, and the gradient of the ramp is 18°.  There are large bedrocks outcropping on the slope surface. The entrance stratum is Jurassic lower Zhenzhuchong Stratum, the lithology is sandstone with mudstone, and the occurrence of the rock stratum is 141°∠35°. The line intercrosses with the large angle of the ramp. There is no large and medium landslide, mudflow or collapse on the ramp surface. The ramp is stable currently. The shallow burying section of the entrance has thick weathering layer. The exit rock body has thick weathering layer, and it is a forward slope. The stability of the heading slope and cutting slope at the entrance is poor. The wall rocks at the entrance are Class V, and falling, collapse or other hazards many befall if the arch crown or side wall is not supported in time. The stability is poor.

4G线华莹山隧道

G-line Huayingshan Tunnel

G线华蓥山隧道桩号GK104+985GK114+359,全长9374m,隧道进口位于一倾向北西的顺向斜坡中部,斜坡坡度1530°,斜坡坡面多被第四系残坡积、崩坡积层覆盖,厚度13m,局部地形较陡处可见零星基岩出露,岩性为侏罗系中统新田沟组粉砂岩、泥岩等。岩层产状287298°∠71°。进口段斜坡无滑坡、泥石流等不良地质现象,现状稳定性好。洞口围岩为级围岩,岩体风化节理发育,自稳能力较差,仰、堑坡稳定性差。

The pile No. of G-line Tongluoshan Tunnel is GK104+985-GK114+359 with a total length of 9374m. The entrance of the tunnel is situated in the central part of a forward ramp leaning toward NW, and the gradient of the ramp is 10-30°. There are many overburdens of Quaternary eluvium and colluvial deposits. The landform in some places is steep, and sporadic outcropping bedrock can be seen. The lithology is Jurassic middle Xintiangou Stratum silty sandstone and mudstone etc. The occurrence of the rock stratum is 287-298°71°. The ramp of entry section has no adverse geologic phenomenon such as landslide, mudflow, collapse, etc. The situation is stable.  The wall rocks of the entrance are Class V, and the weathering joints of the rock mass is developed. The self-stability capacity is poor, and the stability of heading slope and cutting slope is poor.

隧道洞身段在GK105+815GK107+104段、GK111+261GK113+647穿越三叠系上统须家河组含煤地层,该套地层含煤数层,可采煤层达35层,该段现状未设置任何采矿企业,但不排除有采空的民间私人作坊式小煤窑(即采空区)的存在,隧道开挖可能会遭遇小范围的采空区及瓦斯,另拟建隧道线路穿越华蓥山背斜核部,该段背斜核部由三叠系中统雷口坡组及下统嘉陵江组地层组成。雷口坡组地层主要由钙质泥岩、泥灰岩、灰岩等一系列岩石组成,其特点是以泥质岩为主,岩溶发育程度相对较弱;嘉陵江组地层由灰岩、白云质灰岩及盐溶角砾岩为主,且含石膏,岩溶强烈发育,隧道通过段不排除遭遇较大规模的溶洞、暗河的可能,为该段线路通过十分突出的不良地质现象。洞身段多为级围岩,围岩的自稳能力一般~较差。但背斜核部岩层倾角几近水平,拱顶时应注意部分层间结合较差部位立层剥离的问题。

The tunnel body section passes through Triassic upper Xujiahe Stratum with coal-bearing stratum at Sections GK105+815-GK107+104 and GK111+261-GK113+647. This stratum has a lot of coal-bearing layers, and the number of minable coal beds can be reach three or five. Currently, there is no mining enterprise in this section, but possibly there are private small coal pits (or goaf). Thus, the tunneling may encounter goafs in a small area. The tunnel passes through this stratum, and the major adverse geologic phenomenon is goaf and gas. Additionally, the tunnel is proposed to pass through the core of Huayingshan Anticline, and the core is composed of Triassic middle Leikoupo Stratum and lower Jialingjiang Stratum. Leikoupo Stratum mainly consists of calcareous mudstone, marlite, limestone, etc., featured with the domination of argillaceous rocks and weak development of karst. Jialingjiang Stratum is composed of limestone, dolomitic limestone and saline breccia with gypsum. Karst is considerably developed, and the tunnel may passes through large solution cavity and underground river, which are the prominent adverse geologic phenomenon. The tunnel body is mainly of Class III and Class IV wall rocks. The self-stabilization capability of wall rocks is average to poor. However, the inclination angle of anticline core rock stratum is near horizontal, so the elevation stripping between some layers with poor connection deserves special attention during arching.

隧道出口段位于一南东向顺向斜坡上,斜坡坡度约1520°,坡面多被第四系残坡积层覆盖,局部地势较陡处见有零星基岩出露。为侏罗系下统珍珠冲组泥岩、砂岩及粉砂岩等,产状约113°∠32°。洞口浅埋段强风化厚度较大,洞口仰、堑坡稳定性较差,洞口围岩为级围岩,拱顶不及时支护可能出现掉块、坍塌等现象,稳定性较差。且该段穿大竹县中华乡黑滩煤矿采空区,该矿开采标高+200+489m,从该矿开采标高结合线路设计标高来看,该方案隧道穿越该矿采空区可能性很大,煤层采空区及瓦斯对隧道的影响大。

The exit section of the tunnel is located on a forward ramp in the SE direction, and the gradient of the ramp is 15-20°. The ramp surface is mainly covered with Quaternary system eluvium layer. The landform in some places is steep, and sporadic outcropping bedrock can be seen. The section is composed of Jurassic lower Zhenzhuchong mudstone, sandstone and silty sandstone, etc. The occurrence of the rock stratum is 113°∠32°. The shallow burying section of the entrance has thick weathering layer, and the stability of the heading slope and cutting slope at the entrance is poor. The wall rocks at the entrance are Class V, and falling, collapse or other hazards many befall if the arch crown is not supported in time. Moreover, this section has to pass through Heitan coal mine goaf in Zhonghua Township of Dazhu County, the mining elevation of the mine is +200-+489m. Based on the design elevation and the mining elevation, the tunnel in this scheme will probably pass through this goaf, so the coalbed goaf and gas will have great impact on the tunnel.

 

5.1.5 筑路材料

Rod building material

项目区及其附近除中、粗砂较缺乏外,其余材料较为丰富。路线沿线出露灰岩、砂岩、泥岩、泥灰岩、白云岩等,可作一般路基填料,圬工所用的块石、片石、碎石、机制砂等材料可就近开采,路线紧邻或垮越嘉陵江、渠江,可在河中采集砂、砂砾石等材料。路面磨耗层用碎石需远处调运。

Except medium and coarse sand, other materials are abundant in the project area and its nearby places. Limestone, sandstone, mudstone, marlite, dolomite, etc. are outcropping along the line, which normally can be taken as the filling of the subgrade. The block stone, plate stone, reduced stone, machine-made sand etc. can be mined nearby for masonry. The line is adjacent or spans over Jialing and Qujiang Rivers, and sand, sand and gravel can be collected in the river. The reduced stone for wearing layer of the road surface needs to be transported from other localities afar.

1、砂砾卵石

Sand and gravel

主要产于南充嘉陵江、渠江等,为冲洪积物,细砂及砂卵石较为丰富。砾石成份为石英砂岩、砂岩、灰岩等,当地均在开采,可购买或开采使用。项目区中、粗砂较缺乏,建议用华蓥山灰岩进行集中轧制加工。

It is mainly produced from Jialing and Qujiang Rivers in Nanchong. It is an alluvial product. The fine sand and gravel are abundant. The contents of the gravel comprise quartzy sandstone, sandstone, limestone, etc., which are available locally, or purchased or mined. In the project area, medium sand and coarse sand are scanty. It is suggested that Huayingshan Limestone be used for collective rolling and machining.

2、路基填料

Filling of subgrade

本项目路基填方所需填料可就近利用挖方路基来填筑路堤,挖方中以泥岩、砂岩、灰岩为主,其次为泥灰岩、白云岩及低液限粘土。其中砂岩、灰岩采用常规爆破方式挖出的石方,其规格一般不满足规范要求,需对其进行加工破碎,使其粒径大小规格应符合规范要求,才能保证施工压实度。

For the filling needed for the subgrade, the excavated subgrade can be utilized as the filling for embankment. The excavation mainly comprises mudstone, sandstone and limestone, followed by marlite, dolomite and low liquid limit clay. Of that, regular blast method is often adopted for sandstone and limestone. The excavated earth cannot meet the specification requirements, basically. Thus, they shall be machined and crashed to meet the requirements for grain size and specification. Only by doing so can the construction compactness be ensured. 

3、块石、片石

Block stone and plate stone

沿线出露的侏罗系沙溪庙组、遂宁组和蓬莱镇的厚层长石石英砂岩及二叠系、三叠系灰岩,均可作桥涵、挡墙、边沟等圬工石料使用。并且当地大量开采用于河堤、挡墙及小桥涵洞建设。开采、交通方便,上路运距短,局部须修较短便道。

The thick-layer feldspathic quartz sandstone and Permian and Triassic limestone Jurassic Shaximiao Stratum, Suining Stratum and Penglaizhen outcropping along the line can be used for the masonry stone material for bridge and culvert, retaining wall, lateral ditch etc. They can be massively mined in the local, and be used for dike, retaining wall, small bridge and culvert construction. It is convenient for mining and transportation. The transport distance is short, and short accesses shall be built in some places.

4、路面碎石

Reduced stone on road surface

    辉绿岩料场位于陕西省紫阳县高滩镇黄瓜溪,省道310右侧200m,储量丰富,线外运距约320公里,火车联运,运输道路较好,主要用于路面上面层,其中面层、下面层及基层、底基层所用碎石可选用就近灰岩轧制,开采交通方便,上路运距短。

Huilu Stock Yard is located in Huangguaxi, Gaotan Town, Ziyang County in Shaanxi Province, 200m from the right side of provincial highway No. 310. The reserve is abundant, and the transport distance outside the line is about 320 km. Railway transport is adopted. The conditions for transport roads are fine. It is used for the upper layer of the road surface. Of that, the reduced stone for surface course, lower course and bed course, subbase can be rolled with limestone available nearby. The transport for mining is convenient, and the transport distance is short.

 

 
 
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