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地质类译文案例


   山谷型滑坡流态化的发生条件与过程分析

                           Occurrence Conditions of and Process Analysis on Fluidization

                                  of Valley type Landslide

滑坡流态化是指滑坡体在中高速运动过程中由于震动和水的参与作用,由滑动状态转化为流动状态的行为和过程。滑坡流态化的研究是滑坡和泥石流学科的重要研究内容,它的研究促进了人们对滑坡灾害和泥石流发生规律的深刻认识。如1974914日,四川南江县白梅娅在连续大量降雨后发生约7×106m3的大型滑坡,在运动中转化为泥石流,估计最大运动速度为60m/s,运动距离约为5km,致使195人丧生;198182410时,陕西宁强县大安镇石家坡连续降雨后发生约2×105 m3的中型滑坡转化为泥石流,运动距离约7O0m,造成14人死亡和大量财产损失。

Fluidization of landslide indicates the action and process of an alive landslide motion of converting from sliding state to fluidal disposition due to vibration and watering function occurred in process of landslide’s medium and high velocity movement. Research on landslide fluidization is a major subject in the field of landslide and debris flow studies, which has a significance of deepening people’s understanding of landslide disaster and rules of debris flow occurrence. Taking for example, Sichuan Nanjiang Baimeiya large-scale landslide on Sept. 14, 1974 happened after a large quantity of rainfall precipitation resulting in a 7×106m3 large-scale landslide, which eventually converted to debris flow with an estimated maximum velocity of 60m/s and a length of movement of about 5km, and 195 people killed; an other example is the 2×105 m3 medium-sized landslide occurred in Shijiapo, Da’an Town, Ningqiang County, Shanxi Province at 10 pm on Aug. 24, 1981 after a steady rainfall, which finally converted to debris flow, with an approximately moving distance of 700m and14 people killed as well as big loss of property.

目前国内外对滑坡流态化发生机理的研究,总体上都是有关模型试验和理论探讨方面的研究。如CB认为许多降雨触发的泥石流实质上是由于孔隙水压力上升而造成土体抗剪强度损失而引起的浅层滑坡,浅层滑坡的运动发展成为泥石流; HW等将暴雨滑坡泥石流化的形成过程分为五个阶段;RD进行了模型槽实验研究,并通过野外观测、室内实验及理论分析,提出了滑坡转化为泥石流的三个过程;李焯芬分析了滑坡泥石流成因的控制因素,提出了暴雨滑坡泥石流的4类破坏机制;李永益在野外调查的基础上,通过室内模型槽实验研究,再现了滑坡转化泥石流的过程;孔纪名对陆上滑坡流态化类型,从坡面型和沟谷型两方面进行了初步划分。

For the present, the research on occurrence mechanism of landslide fluidization is stilled focused on model test and theory research at home and abroad. According to CB, a lot of debris flow that is considered as the consequence of rainfall is actually developed from shallow landslide which is caused by reduction of shear strength of soils due to increase in pressure of pore water; HW considered the fluidization of landslide occurring after storm forms in five stages; RD proposed three steps in which landslide converts to debris flow based upon model experiment, field observation, lab experiment and theoretic analysis; Li Zhuofen proposed four failure mechanisms of landslide and debris flow occurring after storm according to analysis on formation cause of landslide and debris flow; Li Yongyi simulated the process in which landslide converts to debris flow through model experiment based upon field survey; while Sun Jiming preliminarily classified the fluidization of landslide into slope-type fluidization and gully-type fluidization.

从国内外的研究动态来看,目前滑坡流态化的研究成果主要有三个方面。①在野外考察方面积累了大量的素材,对一些参数进行了测量,积累数据;②采用一些新的实验手段和方法,结合野外试验和室内实验,对滑坡流态化的形成机理进行了研究,取得了显著的成果;③理论上分别从不同的角度进行了研究,得出能反映滑坡流态化的某些特征。但是,这些研究还存在一些不足之处,例如对滑坡流态化的形成条件方面,还没有系统的理论探讨和相应的室内外实验研究,对滑坡流态化的发生发展过程方面,也还没有详细的划分和论述。    

  According to research information at home and abroad, the main achievements of research on fluidization of landslide can be seen from: a lot of data has been obtained from field survey and some parameters has been measured; great performances has been achieved in research on formation mechanism for fluidization of landslide by means of new experiment and method as well as field and indoor experiments; some characteristics of fluidization of landslide has been found through theoretic research of various aspects. However, there might be some insufficience in those researches, such as no systematical theoretic research and corresponding filed and lab experiments have been carried out on formation conditions of fluidization of landslide, or detailed classification and discussion been made on occurrence and development of it.

邛山沟一带发生强降雨过程,邛山沟内降雨及其坡面径流入渗,导致陡峭斜坡上的土体发生滑动,继而发生流态化,大量滑坡体物质入沟道,受沟道洪水的入渗和冲刷,迅速转化为泥石流灾害,为典型的滑坡型泥石流,是由滑坡流态化的发生而引发的。据调查,滑坡流态化之所以能引发泥石流,主要是邛山沟的地貌条件、坡体结构、岩性条件等都有利于滑坡流态化的发生。具体地说,坡体陡峭的地形、十分松散的碎石土层、连续的降雨和径流入渗,加上滑坡体在滑动过程中的振动条件,这些条件的耦合作用导致了滑坡流态化的发生。

Taking the heavy rainfall in Qiaongshangou area for example, the rainfall and slope runoff in Qiaongshangou area led to sliding of soils on sharp slope and further to fluidization, therefore, a large quantity of sliding substance entered into gullys, where it was converted to debris flow immediately by infiltration and scouring of floods in gullys. It is a typical landslide-debris flow formed by fluidization of landslide. According to the related investigation, the reason that fluidization of landslide causes formation of debris flow mainly lies in the conditions favorable for fluidization of landslide such as landforms, slope structure and lithologic characters, etc. Specifically, it is the combined action of sharp slope structure, loose macadam stratum, continuous rainfall, runoff infiltration and the vibration caused by sliding that leads to fluidization of landslide.

区域概况和灾害特点

General Introduction and Disaster Features

邛山沟(又叫切山沟)为大渡河上游大金川的一条支沟,当地称为水卡子,流域面积84.90km2,海拔为3000m。邛山沟汇水面积约31km2,主沟道长约9.6 km,沟道平均坡度约250‰,是泥石流的主要源区。邛山沟的中游广泛分布有大面积的古老泥石流台地。台地上居住着邛山二村等几个村寨的村民。该流域位于岷山邛崃山和大雪山的交界处,高山耸峙, 河谷深切, 沟壑纵横, 系高山峡谷地貌。沟内出露地层为志留系茂县群厚层石英岩、二云英片岩夹薄至厚层大理岩,基岩为变质花岗岩、闪长片麻岩和少量的变质大理岩。基岩表面风化形成3060cm厚的残坡积堆积物。

Qiongshangou (also named Qieshangou) is a tributary gully (locally called Shuikazi) of Dajinchuan River on the upper reach of Dadu River, with a drainage area of 84.90km2, an altitude of 3,000m above sea level and a catchment area of 31km2. The main gully is about 9.6km and the average slope grade of gully is about 250. It is the main formation area of debris flow. On the middle reach of Qiongshangou spreads a large area of ancient debris flow platform, where several villages including No. 2 Qiongshan Village are located. The drainage area is located within the bordering area of Minshan Mountain, Qionglai Mountain and Snow Mountain, where high mountain, deep river valley and a lot of gullys spread, with a the mountain-valley landform. Outcropping strata in gully consists of thick quartz rock and the thin-to-thick marble contained two-greisen schist, of Maoxian Group in Silurian System. Bedrock consists of metamorphic granite, diorite gneissose and a few of metamorphic marble, and its surface layer contains a 3060cm thick residual slope deposits formed by weathering.

受地形和气候的影响,流域内降水量呈现明显时空差异:由低海拔的干热河谷到亚高山带逐渐增加,在高山带又降低。年均降雨量在700mm左右,年际变化较大,月、旬降雨分配极不均匀,年降水量呈双峰型”, 6 月为最高峰,9月为次高峰,其降雨特征总体表现为雨季迟、降水日数少、夜雨多,最多雨日一般出现在 67月份。

Subject to the local landform and climate, there is a large temporal and spatial variation in rainfall of the area: the rainfall increases gradually from dry-hot valley at low altitude to subalpine zone, and decreases again at alpine zone. The average annual rainfall is about 700mm and changes greatly every year. The monthly and ten-day rainfall varies greatly. Annual rainfall distributes in a “double hump” shape, namely the max. peak in June and the second peak in September. In general, rainfall of the area is characterized by late rainy period, a few rainy days, more-ikely night rain and the period with the max. rainfall in June or July.

邛山沟滑坡位于沟道右岸。在滑坡发生前,邛山沟一带连续降雨,斜坡残坡积物中含水量增加,坡体开始变形。邛山沟一带又降大雨,斜坡变形加剧。当滑坡体的含水量达到16.1%时,斜坡表部碎石土已接近饱和状态,变形加剧并开始解体,整个坡体随之滑动,形成大规模的滑坡。同时,滑体前部开始出现流动,快速流向并堆积在邛山沟内,在山洪水的作用下迅速转化为泥石流。滑坡体长约140m,平均宽约21m,均厚3.5m左右,估算体积10000m3左右,滑动方向为1450

Landslide occurred on the right bank of Qiongshangou gully. Before it occurred, rainfall lasted for a few days in Qiongshangou area, leading to increase in water content of residual slope deposits and deformation of slope. The slope deformation was aggravated later by heavy rainfall in the area. When water content of landslide increased to 16.1%, the debris soil on surface of slope reached to the saturated status, therefore the deformation was further aggravated and the slope began to disintegrate, which leaded to sliding of the whole slope and occurrence of landslide in large area. Meanwhile, the front part of landslide began to flow in high speed toward Qiangshangou gully and accumulated there, and then converted immediately to debris flow when scoured by floods. The landslide is about 140m long, about 21m wide and 3.5m thick in average. It is estimated that the total volume is about 10,000m3 and the sliding direction is 1450.

此次由滑坡流态化引发的泥石流,最大容重达2.0g/cm3,最大流速达9.4m/s。出沟口时的峰值流量达4836m3/s,流速8.5m/s。最大平均泥深8.lm。此次灾害死亡和失踪人数达51人,几乎摧毁了堆积扇上面积达73136 m2的林地、农地和居住区,水卡子村几乎被全部掩埋,同时导致省道S211公路被冲毁500多米。

The debris flow formed by fluidization of landslide has a max. capacity of 2.0g/cm3 and a max. flow rate of 9.4m/s. The peak flow rate and flow at outlet of gully is 4,836m3/s and 8.5m/s respectively. The max. depth of debris flow is 8.1m in average. In the disaster, 51 people were killed or missing, about 73,136 m2 area of forest, farmland and residential area on deposited area are destroyed, the whole Shuikazi village was almost inundated, and S211 Provincial Highway was damaged by a total length of over 500m.

发生条件分析

Analysis on Occurrence Conditions

地貌条件

Landform

邛山沟属高山深切峡谷地貌区,沟口海拔2036m,滑坡发生处海拔2809m。沟内植被丰富,斜坡陡缓不一。左岸坡度平均550,右岸平均350,沟谷呈不对称的“V”型。邛山沟滑坡发生在沟谷右岸,滑坡处坡度为390,滑坡前沿接近沟底在滑坡顶部有一小片浅槽状低洼地,低洼地往上是陡峭的山峰。因此,邛山沟滑坡的后部具有较好的汇水条件,有利于降雨过程中地表水汇集与渗入坡体,于滑坡的形成有利。

Qiongshangou belongs to a deep mountain-valley landform. The outlet of gully is about 2036m above sea level and the landslide occurred 2,809m above sea level. The gully is covered by abundant vegetation while the slope grade varies greatly. The average slope grade of the left bank and the right bank is 550 and 350 respectively, therefore the gully appears in an asymmetric “V” shape. Landslide occurred on the right bank of Qiongshangou gully where the slope grade is 390. The front edge of landslide is near to gully bottom and there is a small area of shallow and low land at the top of landslide, and above the low land is sharp peaks. Thus, a favorable catchment conditions form at the back part of Qiongshangou, which promotes collection of surface water and infiltration of it into slope during rainfall, and provides favorable conditions for formation of landslide.

邛山沟沟道狭窄,平均宽3m。在降雨过程中,大量地表水进入沟道,流量大,具备了快速向滑坡堆积体补充水份的条件。同时,当滑坡体滑入沟道后,快速堆积也使得沟道堵塞,水位上升,更为大量洪水渗入堆积体提供了条件。当水量进一步加大,更多的洪水从堆积物的表面漫过,冲刷并带走大量堆积物,最终堆积物彻底解体,从而转化为泥石流。

Qiongshangou gully is shallow, 3m wide in average. During rainfall, a great amount of surface water enters into gully at a large flow rate, providing conditions for supplementing water to accumulated mass immediately. In addition, when landslide slides into gully and accumulates immediately, the gully will be blocked and water level increased, which provides conditions for infiltration of floods into accumulated mass in a large quantity. If more surface water enters into gully, more floods will flow across surface of accumulated mass, therefore a large part of accumulated mass will be carried away and gradually disintegrated, and finally converted to debris flow.

岩性条件

Lithologic Conditions

邛山沟流域内出露地层为志留系茂县群厚层石英岩、二云英片岩夹薄至厚层大理岩,基岩表面风化形成3060cm厚的残坡积物。坡积物中粉粒和粘粒共占42.4%,砂粒占31.1%,砾粒碎石占了26.3%,孔隙率达到了34%以上。滑坡堆积物以碎石土为主,其中夹有极少量块石,结构松散,孔隙率大,其最大孔隙率为38%,非常有利于地表水得渗入。

In Qiongshangou area, the outcropping strata in gully consists of thick quartz rock and the thin-to-thick marble contained two-greisen schist, of Maoxian Group in Silurian System, and bedrock consists of metamorphic granite, diorite gneissose and a few of metamorphic marble, and its surface layer contains a 3060cm thick residual slope deposits formed by weathering. Among slope deposits, silt and clay account for 42.4%, sand 31.1%, and gravel and macadam 26.3%, and its porosity is higher than 34%. Landslide deposits consists of a large quantity of macadam and a few of block stone. It is loose in structure and has a high porosity up to 38%. Therefore, the lithologic conditions are quite favorable for infiltration of surface water.

砂土和粉土在水的作用下达到饱和状态后,受振动影响,孔隙水压力骤然上升,使原来由土颗粒间接触点传递的压力减小,当有效压力完全消失时,土层会完全丧失抗剪强度和承载能力,变成像液体一样,这就是砂土的液化现象。

Sand-soil liquefaction: when sandy soil and silty soil become saturated with water, and at the same time the pressure of pore water increases due to vibration, the pressure transferred by contact between soil particles will be decreased, if the effective pressure disappears completely, the shear strength and bearing capacity of soil layer will loss completely and the soil will become liquid.

对滑坡体物质组成进行分析,砂粒占了其中的31%,粉粒占了22.4%,这为滑坡流态化的发生提供了物质基础。另外,滑坡体在滑动过程中发生振动,为滑坡体中饱和的砂土和粉土发生液化现象提供了动力支持。而滑坡体中砂土和粉土液化现象的发生,直接诱发了滑坡体流态化现象的发生。

According to analysis on composition of landslide, 31% is sand and 22.4% is silt, which is a favorable substance condition for occurrence of landslide fluidization. On the other hand, the vibration caused by sliding of landslide is the dynamic condition for liquefaction of saturated sandy soil and silty soil in landslide. However, the liquefaction of sandy soil and silty soil is just the direct factor leading to fluidization of landslide.

 
 
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